TMT-AGE: wide field of regard multi-object adaptive optics for TMT
By: Masayuki Akiyama
Abstract: We are conducting a feasibility study on a wide field of regard Multi-Object Adaptive Optics system for TMT (TMT-AGE:TMT-Analyzer for Galaxies in the Early universe). The wide FoR is crucial to effectively observe very high-redshift UV-bright galaxies at z>5, which have low surface number density. Simulations of an MOAO system show moderate AO correction can be achieved within 10 arcmin diameter FoR. We discuss overall system design of the wide FoR MOAO system considering the system constraint from the stroke of small-size deformable mirror.
Co-Authors: S. Oya, Y. H. Ono, TMT-AGE team
Synergy Between the Jansky Very Large Array, LSST and the Next Generation 30 Meter Telescopes
By: Stefi Baum
Abstract: This talk will discuss the science capabilities of the JVLA in the context of the next generation ground based optical/ir telescopes LSST and TMT. Examples will be provided of the kind of survey and targeted science JVLA can contribute to major optical/ir science themes.
Star Formation in High Redshift Galaxies with Cluster Lenses as Cosmic Telescopes Star Formation in High Redshift Galaxies with Cluster Lenses as Cosmic Telescopes
By: Marusa Bradac
Abstract: In the recent years HST enabled us to detect galaxies as far as z~11. They are likely beacons of the epoch of reionization, which marked the end of the so-called ``Dark Ages'' and signified the transformation of the universe from opaque to transparent. However very little is known about those galaxies, and a confirmation of their redshift is still out of our hands. TMT will be a major powerhorse in this endeavor in the future. In addition, clusters of galaxies, when used as cosmic telescopes, can greatly simplify the task of studying and finding highest-z galaxies. With a massive cluster one can gain several magnitudes of magnification over a typical observing field, enabling imaging and spectroscopic studies of intrinsically lower-luminosity galaxies than would otherwise be observable, even with the largest telescopes. We are involved and leading several large surveys (SURFS UP for Spitzer imaging, GLASS for HST spectrscopy, and Frontier Field initiative for ultra deep HST imaging) with the main goal of identifying and studying star formation of galaxies at z=1-11. I will present first results from these surveys, show successful measurements of SFR at z~7 and beyond, and discuss the role TMT will be playing in exploring epoch of reionization.
Submillimeter Surveys with CCAT and Synergies with the TMT
By: John Carpenter
Abstract: CCAT will be a 25-meter telescope for submillimeter astronomy located at 5600 meter altitude on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will combine high sensitivity, a wide field of view, and broad wavelength coverage to provide an unprecedented capability for deep, large-area multicolor submillimeter surveys. I will describe the scientific synergies between CCAT surveys and TMT, with emphasis on the exploration of galaxies at high redshift and the origin of the stellar initial mass function.
The time domain and static sky science from the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys and implications for the TMT
By: Kenneth Chambers
Abstract: Pan-STARRS1 has completed a 4 year observing program of a suite of sky surveys. A brief overview of the PS1 surveys and the scientific results with an emphasis on the time domain will be presented together with some results from other surveys. All PS1 data products and derived data products will be released to the community through the STScI MAST portal April 1, 2015. Potential future surveys with Pan-STARRS and synergies with TMT will be discussed.
A study on generalized second law of thermodynamics in QCD ghost f(G) gravity
By: Surajit Chattopadhyay
Abstract: Considering power-law for of scale factor in a flat FRW universe we reported a reconstruction scheme for f(G) gravity based on QCD ghost dark energy. We reconstructed the effective equation of state parameter and observed “quintessence” behavior of the equation of state parameter. Furthermore, considering dynamical apparent horizon as the enveloping horizon of the universe we have observed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is valid for this reconstructed f(G) gravity.
Consequences of interacting Ricci dark energy in f(R,T) gravity
By: Surajit Chattopadhyay
Abstract: This paper is primarily aimed at reconstruction of a holographic dark energy model in the framework of a modified gravity. As the holographic dark energy we have considered Ricci dark energy. An interacting scenario with dark matter has been considered. The reconstruction scheme is based on the reconstruction of the Hubble parameter from the modified field equations. Based on this reconstructed Hubble parameter we have reconstructed the Ricci dark energy density in the framework of f(R,T) modified gravity. Based on the reconstructed dark energy we have analyzed the Equation of State parameter, deceleration parameter and statefinder parameter.
Outward Bound with RR Lyrae Stars: Studies of the Outer Halo of the Milky Way
By: Judith Cohen
Abstract: We have isolated a sample of 734 RR Lyrae stars at distances beyond 50 kpc in the Milky Way halo from the Palomar Transient Facility database. We are using these to probe the density distribution in the halo out to about 100 kpc as well as the total mass of the Milky Way galaxy, which is still controversial and is important for near field cosmology. But we are hitting a number of limits in our effort to get further out. TMT coupled with a suitable wide field but deep multi-epoch imaging survey (i.e. LSST) will enable us to probe to the outer edge of our Galaxy.
Co-Authors: B. Sesar, S. Banholzer
Exoplanet Science with TMT
By: Ian Crossfield
Abstract: TMT will have unparalleled capabilities for characterizing the composition of extrasolar planets and their atmospheres, and for probing the complex interplay between planet formation, evolution, and migration. In this plenary talk I will summarize these science cases and discuss their synergy with other observing facilities. High-resolution imaging with IRIS and PFI/SEIT will study young, hot planets in nearby star-forming regions, complementing JWST and WFIRST/AFTA coronagraphic efforts at larger semimajor axes. The same instruments will flesh out planets detected by radial velocity (RV) by measuring the albedos and bolometric radii of old, cold Jovian planets and a few ~300 K super-Earths. Complementing JWST and HST studies of short-period transiting planets, NIRES and IRMS spectroscopy will reveal atmospheric composition, dynamics, and thermal structure for dozens of hot Jupiters and Neptunes; NIRES will also produce 2D global maps and movies of a few exoplanets and dozens of brown dwarfs. HROS high-dispersion spectroscopy will precisely measure the composition of extrasolar planetesimals in polluted white dwarfs, and RV followup will continue to exploit the legacies of Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLATO to measure the masses, orbits, and bulk compositions of Earth analogues. Most exciting of all, TMT may facilitate the next major step in the study of exobiology by allowing the detection of biosignature gases around the closest habitable transiting planets.
The Swift mission as high-z explorer: the GRBs legacy for TMT
By: Antonino Cucchiara
Abstract: The first billion years of the Universe have been studied extensively via Lyman-break galaxy surveys
at great expense of HST time, providing the first detection of $z\sim10$ galaxies and the characterization of star-formation rate during re-ionization.
Despite these results, the evolution of the chemical content (in neutral or ionized form), the
identification of the first stars and of the more abundant faint, dwarf galaxies at $z\gtrsim7$ are, and will probably be, out of reach for several years to come.
Thanks to the capabilities of the Swift mission, the detection of the first Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) at $z=8.2$ provides a new way to explore the $z=6-15$ regime. In the past 10 years, the synergy
between a versatile, multi-frequency, rapid-response mission like Swift and the ground based community enabled the detection of primordial GRBs, the study of the neutral IGM via GRB afterglow spectra during the reionization time, and the study of the metal enrichment of the ISM within the first galaxies. I will review these milestones and present the current status of the mission and its connection with several NIR-focused telescope facilities in the prospect of the ``the New Worlds, New Horizon" Decadal survey.
In particular, the advent of TMT will sign a new chapter of the high redshift Universe exploration, which will greatly benefit by the current and future successes of Swift and the forthcoming time-domain dedicated missions.
Star Formation Studies with SOFIA and its Synergy with TMT
By: James De Buizer
Abstract: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a modified Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a 2.5m telescope that performs observations at high altitude from the optical to the sub-mm. The observatory just reached full operational capability in April of this year. Given that it is slated for a 20-year mission lifetime, SOFIA will overlap TMT by more than a decade. I will discuss the contrasting and complementary features of SOFIA and TMT in the context of star formation, discuss some of the early results from SOFIA in this field, and finish with a discussion of how TMT data can enhance and extended our understanding of star formation processes.
[This talk could also be generalized to discuss more about synergies between SOFIA and TMT in a broader context (not just star formation), should the organizers prefer that.]
Prospects for Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Masses with TMT
By: Tuan Do
Abstract: The next generation of giant-segmented mirror telescopes will enable us to observe galactic nuclei at much higher angular resolution and sensitivity than ever before. These capabilities will introduce a revolutionary shift in our understanding of the origin and evolution of supermassive black holes by enabling more precise black hole mass measurements in a mass range that is unreachable today. We present simulations and predictions of the observations of nuclei that will be made with the Thirty Meter Telescope and the adaptive optics assisted integral- field spectrograph IRIS, which is capable of diffraction-limited spectroscopy from Z band (0.9 μm) to K band (2.2 μm). These simulations, for the first time, use realistic values for the sky, telescope, adaptive optics system, and instrument to determine the expected signal-to-noise ratio of a range of possible targets spanning intermediate mass black holes of ∼10^4 M⊙ to the most massive black holes known today of >10^10 M⊙. I will present simulations across a spectrum of black hole masses and galaxy types to show the ability of IRIS and TMT to quantitatively explore the demographics of black holes in the universe. I will discuss how these observations will enable our study of the origin of the MBH − galaxy velocity dispersion and MBH −galaxy luminosity relationships, and the evolution of black holes through cosmic time.
Co-Authors: Shelley A. Wright, Aaron J. Barth, Elizabeth J. Barton, Luc Simard, James E. Larkin, Anna M. Moore, Lianqi Wang, and Brent Ellerbroek
System-Level Verification of Science Instruments Prior to Installation at TMT
By: Dennis Ebbets
Abstract: Science instruments for TMT will share many similarities with those built for large space observatories such as HST and JWST. They will be physically large, scientifically sophisticated and technologically complex. They will represent very significant investments of time and money by PI-led teams with common scientific interests, but from many academic institutions, industry partners and even nations. These teams will verify the basic functionality and performance of their instruments, but may not each have facilities to test the many complex interfaces to and interactions with the observatory. Once installed on the telescope and commissioned, the instruments will be expected to function for many years with very limited opportunities for servicing. These and other considerations argue that a common facility that provides reasonably high fidelity simulation of the TMT mechanical and optical environments, AO system interfaces, operations and data management systems and other critical functions would enable a confidence-building final step in the Integration and Test process. This poster illustrates how high-quality Ground Support Equipment was used to prepare seven instruments for Hubble, develop and validate wave-front sensing and control algorithms for James Webb, simulate the optical characteristics of JWST, conduct vibration and modal surveys, and produce performance data that were compared with predictions of integrated models. Analogous capabilities could be developed to support TMT, ensuring delivery of fully qualified instruments to the observatory.
Co-Authors: Dennis Ebbets Makenzie Lystrup
X-ray Telescopes and the Next Generation Large Ground Based Telescopes
By: Giuseppina Fabbiano
TMT survey of planetary nebulae in the Local Universe
By: Xuan Fang
Abstract: As the descendants of low- and intermediate-mass stars, Planetary nebulae (PNe) are ubiquitous in the universe. Being bright in narrow emission lines, they are excellent tracers to study the kinematics, stellar population and chemistry of their host galaxies. Although discovery of extragalactic PNe are accelerating with the availability of large format CCD imagers and new instruments, high-quality PN spectra suitable for chemical study are conspicuously limited; observations at different telescopes/instruments also bring data inhomogeneity. The light-collecting power of TMT will enable acquisition of deep spectra for a large number of PNe in the Local Group galaxies at an affordable amount of time. The TMT multi-object spectroscopy will allow us to derive 3D maps (including kinematics) of nebular abundances and properties of progenitors, and thus to investigate the formation history of late type galaxies and test the theory of hierarchical cosmology. Using these spectra, we will study for the first time the long-standing “abundance and temperature discrepancies”, the two basic problems in nebular astrophysics, in extragalactic PNe. The TMT deep survey of PNe will also be extended beyond the Local Group, to as far as 30 Mpc, enabling a study of stellar evolution and population in various types of galaxies.
UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
By: V. Zach Golkhou
Abstract: We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of Δtmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.
Co-Authors: Nathaniel R. Butler
Probing the contribution of AGB stars to the Galactic chemical inventory with TMT
By: Aruna Goswami
Abstract: The time at which the first intermediate and low-mass stars had reached the AGB phase and began to pollute their environment with the products of nucleosynthesis still remains an outstanding question. We will discuss how the measurements of isotopic ratios of certain key elements can be used to determine the time of contribution of AGB stars to the Galactic chemical inventory. Such a study is expected to have great implications on the Galactic chemical evolution. TMT equipped with high resolution spectrograph will provide the resolution and sensitivity required for measurements of isotopic ratios that are more fundamental indicators of nucleosynthesis.
Imaging Transitional Disks with TMT: Lessons Learned from the SEEDS Survey
By: Carol Grady
Abstract: TMT studies of the early phases of giant planet formation will build on studies carried out with 8-m class telescopes. One such study is the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru transitional disk survey. We have found a wealth of indirect signatures of giant planet presence, including spiral arms, pericenter offsets of the outer disk from the star, and changes in disk color at the inner edge of the outer disk, at the location of dust traps seen in ALMA data in intermediate-mass PMS star disks. T Tauri star transitional disks are less flamboyant, but are also dynamically colder: any spiral arms in these disks will be more tightly wound. Imaging such features at the distance of the nearest star-forming regions requires higher angular resolution than achieved with HiCIAO+ AO188. Imaging such disks with extreme AO systems requires use of laser guide stars, and are infeasible with the extreme AO systems currently commissioning on 8m-class telescopes. Similarly, the JWST and AFTA/WFIRST coronagraphs being considered have inner working angles >0.2”, and will occult the inner 28 AU of systems at d=140pc, a region where both high-contrast imagery and ALMA data indicate that giant planets are located in transitional disks. However, studies of transitional disks associated with solar-mass stars and their planet complement are feasible with TMT.
Co-Authors: M. Fukagawa (Osaka U.), T. Muto (Kogakuin U.), J. Hashimoto and J. Wisniewski (U. Oklahoma), M. McElwain (NASA GSFC) and the SEEDS consortium
The Milky Way, Andromeda, and Distant Galaxies: Insights from Deep Keck Spectroscopic Surveys
By: Raja GuhaThakurta
Abstract: I will present results from a couple of ongoing surveys that rely on very deep Keck spectroscopy (8- to 24-hour integrations) to look at and through the outer halo of the Milky Way. One of these surveys, HALO7D, targets faint stars in the outer halo of the Milky Way as its primary targets in order to measure their radial velocity and metallicity. By combining these measurements with HST-based proper motions for these same stars, we hope to learn about the dark matter content and accretion history of our Galaxy. The secondary/filler targets of the HALO7D survey are distant galaxies in the COSMOS, GOODS-North, and Extended Groth Strip fields. Another survey, the SPLASH survey of Andromeda's outer halo is providing observational constraints on the process of hierarchical assembly of large galaxies. These deep surveys with Keck foreshadow the kind of studies that can and should be undertaken with TMT.
Co-Authors: Emily Cunningham, Alis Deason, Connie Rockosi, Guillermo Barro, Edmond Cheung, Charlie Conroy, Sandy Faber, Yicheng Guo, David Koo, Hassen Yesuf (all at UC Santa Cruz), Karrie Gilbert, Tony Sohn, Roeland van der Marel (STScI), and Evan Kirby (UC Irvine)
CHILI: China Lijiang IFU
By: Lei Hao
Abstract: Wide-field IFU technology on medium-size telescope provides a unique science capability that compliments larger future facilities. Here I introduce a program to employ a VIRUS-like unit on the 2.4 meter telescope in GaoMeiGu Observatory in LiJiang, China. We name the instrument "CHILI (China Lijiang IFU)". It will be an IFU with very large field of view at 1.8'x3.6'. We discuss its science capabilities and its potential benefit to the Chinese astronomical community.
The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Probing the Evolution of Asymmetries in Supernovae
By: Jennifer Hoffman
Abstract: Nearly all supernovae possess spectropolarimetric signatures that indicate the presence of aspherical morphologies in the ejecta and/or surrounding circumstellar material. Interpreting the time variations of these spectropolarimetric signatures can yield unprecedentedly detailed information about supernova explosion mechanisms, the physical processes that shape the ejecta’s density and velocity distributions, and the properties of the progenitor star.
The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project (SNSPOL) is a collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on understanding the time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we have obtained multi-epoch observations of over 50 supernovae of various types. I will present observational results from this project and discuss ongoing modeling efforts. Initial analysis reveals complex variable line polarization signatures that probe the distributions of different chemical species and thereby trace the detailed structure of the ejecta as these supernovae evolve. Our continuing observations will form the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light, allowing us to illuminate previously obscured relationships among subtypes, constrain progenitor properties, and build a more complete picture of the supernova population as a whole.
Co-Authors: G.G. Williams (MMT Observatory), C. Bilinski (Steward Observatory), L. Dessart (Universite de Nice), L. N. Huk (U. Denver), D.C. Leonard (SDSU), J. Mauerhan (UC Berkeley). P. A. Milne (Steward Observatory), N. Smith (Steward Observatory), P. S. Smith (Steward Observatory)
Luminous Infrared Galaxies Observed from the Ground and Space in the 2020s
By: Hanae Inami
Abstract: The dust-penetrating power of infrared observations will allow us to reveal the physical and chemical properties in and around the dust enshrouded nuclei of galaxies. While current near-infrared spectroscopic observations with 8-10m class telescopes can access to z=1-3 regime, they are still very challenging and limited to luminous targets. For z=0 objects, these telescopes can resolve HII regions, but we still do not fully understand the properties of more extreme star formation environments (e.g., rich in gas), which are more prevalent at higher redshifts. Near- and mid-infrared TMT instruments (e.g., two of the first light instruments IRIS and IRMS, and a planned mid-infrared instrument MICHI) will exploit TMT's unprecedented high spatial resolution to constrain the physical processes in individual dusty, intense star-forming regions of local galaxies as well as obtain resolved spectra for z=2-3 star-forming galaxies. During the era of 2020, JWST and SPICA are also expected to be commissioned. The high sensitivity of these space-based infrared observatories will facilitate investigations of the properties of dusty galaxies at even higher redshifts (z > 3). Only with the combination of ground- and space-observatories, we will be able to obtain a complete picture of star formation and AGN activity to explore the evolution of LIRGs which dominate the peak of the galaxy growth in the universe.
Co-Authors: L. Armus, C. Packham, M. Dickinson
The CCAT Project
By: Tim Jenness
Abstract: CCAT will be a 25-meter telescope for submillimeter astronomy located at 5600 meter altitude on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will combine high sensitivity, a wide field of view, and broad wavelength coverage to provide an unprecedented capability for deep, large-area multicolor submillimeter surveys. The anticipated first generation instruments include large format (60,000 pixel) kinetic inductance detector (KID) continuum cameras, a large format heterodyne array and a direct detection multi-object spectrometer.
Co-Authors: CCAT consortium
The James Webb Space Telescope
By: Jason Kalirai
Abstract: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be the most powerful space telescope that we've ever constructed, and it is a critical step towards answering the top science questions outlined in both the 2000 and 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Surveys. In this presentation, I'll first briefly highlight the science capabilities, current status, and science timeline of JWST out to its 2018 launch. I'll then describe several frontier science opportunities that are uniquely enabled by combining JWST's high spatial resolution and unprecedented IR throughput with the Thirty Meter Telescope's spectral capabilities and visible throughput. Like Hubble and current 10 meter telescopes on the ground, the combination of these two facilities will be a great 1-2 punch to usher in a new era in UVOIR astrophysics.
The Initial-Final Mass Relation - 2.0
By: Jason Kalirai
Abstract: In old stellar populations, the bulk of the initial mass function beyond the current main-sequence turnoff now resides on the white dwarf cooling sequence. In this end state of stellar evolution, stars exhibit remarkably simple properties, having no nuclear fuel and simply hydrogen atmospheres. Using the Keck telescope, we have observed these stellar remnants in well studied populations of star clusters to constrain one of the most fundamental relations of stellar astrophysics - the initial to final mass relation. In this talk, I'll discuss TMT opportunities to extend this work into three dimensions; 1.) probing the metallicity dependence of stellar mass loss, and 2.) probing the stochasticity of stellar mass loss, and 3.) constraining the upper mass limit to white dwarf formation (and therefore, the lower mass limit of
type II supernovae).
Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in Minor Merger Tidal Tails
By: Karen Knierman
Abstract: While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers and likely played a role in forming most large galaxies, including the Milky Way. Tidal debris regions have large amounts of neutral gas but a lower gas density and may have higher turbulence.
Star formation tracers such as young star cluster populations and H$\alpha$, CO, and CII emission were studied to determine the different factors that may influence star formation in tidal debris. These tracers were compared to the reservoirs of gas available for star formation to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The SFR of tidal debris can reach up to 50\% of the total star formation in the system. The SFE of tidal tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales. From the tidal debris environments in this study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. A large survey with TMT as well as the continuing programs of ALMA and the EVLA can provide a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation and can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.
Co-Authors: P. Scowen, C. Groppi, T. Veach, P. M. Knezek, B. Mullan, I. S. Konstanopoulos, J. C. Charlton, R. Jansen, E. Wehner
High resolution near-infrared deep fields with MCAO
By: Mark Lacy
Abstract: We have used the SERVS warm Spitzer survey to identify five rare 3-star asterisms suitable for extragalactic observations with the current multi-conjugate adaptive optics GeMS/GSAOI instrument on Gemini-South, and have been awarded time to observe them. Initial observations of one of the fields show that high image quality (better than HST in K-band) can be obtained across the entire field of view. We use lower-resolution surveys from Herschel, Spitzer and ground-based near-infrared observations to characterize the galaxies in the fields and estimate photo-zs. We discuss the use of high resolution multi-wavelength data can be used in conjunction with these images to characterize the morphologies of starforming galaxy population in these fields, concentrating on deep, 0.2" resolution 8GHz VLA data we have for three of the fields. Finally, we describe how pilot surveys such as these can be extended into the TMT era, and discuss the additional science goals that could be achieved using data from TMT instruments.
Co-Authors: Susan Ridgway (NOAO), Preshanth Jaggannathan (Calgary), Janine Pforr (NOAO), Claudia Maraston (Portsmouth), SERVS team.
Status of the European Extremely Large Telescope
By: Jochen Liske
Abstract: I will provide an overview of the European Extremely Large Telescope and its capabilities. I will present the current status of the project and in particular discuss instrumentation plans.
Transits of Planets with Small Intervals in Circumbinary Systems
By: Hui-Gen Liu
Abstract: Transit times around single stars can be described well by a linear ephemeris. However, transit times in circumbinary systems are influenced both by the gravitational perturbations and the orbital phase variations of the central binary star. Adopting a coplanar analog of Kepler-16 as an example, we find that circumbinary planets can transit the same star more than once during a single planetary orbit, a phenomenon we call "tight transits." In certain geometric, the projected orbital velocity of the planet and the secondary star can approach zero and change sign, resulting in very long transits and/or 2-3 transits during a single binary orbit. Whether tight transits are possible for a particular system depends primarily on the binary mass ratio and the orbital architecture of both the binary and the planet. We derive a time-dependent criterion to judge when tight transits are possible for any circumbinary system. These results are verified with full dynamical integrations that also
reveal other tight transit characteristics, i.e., the transit durations and the intervals between tight transits. For the seven currently known circumbinary systems, we estimate these critical parameters both analytically and numerically. Due to the mutual inclination between the planet and the binary, tight transits can only occur across the less massive star B in Kepler-16, 34, 35, and 47 (for both planets). The long-term average frequency of tight transits (compared to typical transits) for Kepler-16, 34, and 35 are estimated to be several percent. Using full numerical integrations, the next tight transit for each system is predicted and the soonest example appears to be Kepler-47b and c, which are likely to have tight transits before 2025. These unique and valuable events often deserve special observational scrutiny.
Co-Authors: Ying Wang, Hui Zhang, Ji-Lin Zhou
Feedback and the Physics of Star Formation Quenching
By: Crystal Martin
Abstract: Over the last decade, observations have revealed a number of surprising discoveries about how the baryonic content of galaxies is assembled. Roughly half the mass in present-day galaxies was assembled since redshift z~1 over an era when the cosmic star formation rate steadily declined. While the stellar mass in passive, red-sequence galaxies continued to grow, the mass in star-forming galaxies remained essentially constant. Over this period, some process, yet to be securely identified, quenched star formation in massive galaxies. This quenching was not predicted by theoretical models of the underlying cosmology and the hierarchical growth of gravitationally bound structures. Understanding the growth of the baryonic component of galaxies requires following the accretion and ejection of gas from galaxies. This gas physics depends on the highly non-linear gas cooling rate and the feedback of energy, momentum, and heavy elements produced by star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN). I will discuss the ways in which detailed studies of galaxies over the era of strongly evolving star formation activity (roughly redshift 1.5 to the present) with TMT will provide answers to some of the questions which the above discoveries have raised.
Co-Authors: G3 Science Development Team
MKIDs for TMT
By: Ben Mazin
Abstract: Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are single photon counting, energy resolving detectors applicable across the UVOIR. The first MKID instrument, ARCONS, has been taking data on the Palomar 200” for several years, and we have recently published the first papers using ARCONS data. There are currently two UVOIR MKID instruments fully funded and under construction for planet hunting, DARKNESS for the Palomar P1640 coronagraph, and MEC for Subaru’s SCExAO.
There are significant opportunities available in pairing MKIDs with TMT. MKIDs can serve as a combined science camera and fast focal plane speckle sensor, allowing rapid feedback to cancel atmospheric speckles. A MKID-based TMT Planet Imager (potentially just a visiting SCExAO+MEC) could discover and take spectra of planets in the habitable zones of nearby M dwarfs, potentially discovering life by looking at spectral signatures in their atmospheres.
Another promising application is using the outer part of the focal plane that is ignored by NFIRAOS for a large MKID array. This instrument would serve as a serendipitous camera, providing imaging and spectroscopy for galaxies that would rotate through the field during the normal use of IRIS and IRMOS. This “free” 30-m time would yield a very deep imaging catalog with R~30 spectroscopy.
Giant Magellan Telescope: Status and Opportunities for Scientific Synergy
By: Patrick McCarthy
Abstract: I will review the status and capabilities of the Giant Magellan Telescope with a science-based perspective. The superset of capabilities offered by TMT and GMT will provide the global astronomical community with unique opportunities. Full sky coverage will enable effective follow-up of all-sky surveys and rare events. The first generation instrument suites for GMT and TMT are complementary, coordinated use will allow users to effectively tackle a suite of programs ranging from dynamics of exoplanetary systems, exploration of first-light and cosmic dawn, dynamical studies of galaxies and young stellar objects, spectroscopy of transients, early chemical evolution of the Milky Way and stellar populations in extreme environments. The 2020 decade promises to be a time of unprecedented opportunity and potential as JWST, GMT, TMT and other facilities come on line.
Co-Authors: Rebecca A. Bernstein, Carnegie Institution for Science and GMTO.
The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer: from wide field surveys to the TMT
By: Alan McConnachie
Abstract: The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) is planned to become the world's only fully dedicated 10m-class spectroscopic facility. It will operate at a range of spectral resolutions, from R~2000 to R>=20000, and obtain simultaneously data for more than 3000 sources over a wide (~1.5sq.deg) field of view. It will fill the gap between wide field imaging surveys and TMT, by being the key follow-up facility for surveys such as LSST and Euclid. It will identify from hundreds of thousands of possible targets those objects that should be fed into TMT. I will discuss the current status of MSE, its defining capabilities, its driving science, and the unique scientific synergies provided by MSE and TMT.
Star formation histories of the Local Volume: developing a key program for the TMT
By: Alan McConnachie
Abstract: TMT will resolve stars to the distance of the Virgo Cluster and beyond, allowing the potential for resolved stellar populations analysis for thousands of galaxies of all masses, morphologies and environments. But how do we best use this capability to further our understanding of the time-resolved history of galaxy evolution? Here, I will describe what I view as the science drivers and possible strategies for a TMT key program in this field. Further, I will present first results on photometry and astrometry of resolved stellar populations using Gemini/GeMS, the first multi-conjugate-adaptive-optics systems in operation and a key technology for D^4 science with TMT.
Co-Authors: Paolo Turri (University of Victoria)
New Directions in Solar System Small Body Science with the TMT
By: Karen Meech
Abstract: One of the key goals of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey includes using primitive bodies to provide information about the epochs and processes in the early solar system and to understand the role that primitive bodies played in creating habitable worlds. Recent in-situ small body space missions (EPOXI, NEOWISE) have changed our understanding of the distribution of major volatiles in primitive bodies, in particular shedding light on the importance of CO2. At the same time there has been a revolution both in the dynamical models that describe how our solar system was assembled, and in the chemistry of the disk of material out of which the planetesimals formed. Observations of small bodies provide the links that will enable us to tie together the early solar system dynamical and chemical models. Because they are small and faint, we have been very limited in optical and near-IR spectroscopic follow up. I will present some of the recent breakthroughs, and what access to the TMT can contribute to understanding the early solar system, in combination with information that will be possible to get from JWST and ALMA.
Co-Authors: K. J. Meech
Direct Imaging Observations of Protoplanetary Disks with TMT
By: Takayuki Muto
Abstract: We present possible science cases of the direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks by TMT. With TMT equipped with an extreme adoptive optics system, we expect to obtain the diffraction-limited images with the spatial resolution of ~0.01 asec, which is about 1-2AU at the distance of nearby star forming region of 140 pc. With such spatial resolution, TMT can reveal disk structures at the 'planet-forming region' in protoplanetary disks. For instance, TMT can reveal spiral density wave launched by a planet orbiting at 30 AU (close to the Neptune orbit) from the central star. TMT can also resolve the surface water snow line that is expected to reside at several AU from the central star. We also discuss how the synergy with ALMA in its full capability can lead to the new insights on the protoplanetary disks and planet formation.
Strong gravitational lenses in the 2020s
By: Masamune Oguri
Abstract: Strong gravitational lenses are a useful cosmological probe, and will continue to be so until 2020s. TMT will play a crucial role in strong lens studies as it allows us to take very high spatial resolution images with help of adaptive optics. In the talk I will discuss prospects for future strong lens searches in wide-field surveys, and show what kind of studies will be enabled in the TMT era. I also discuss our ongoing adaptive optics observations of strongly lensed quasars that highlight the difficulty and importance of an accurate characterization of the point spread function in adaptive optics observations.
Study of galaxy properties with Super Massive Black Holes using both of SPICA and TMT/MICH
By: Nagisa Oi
Abstract: pace Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a next generation infrared space telescope that will appear in 2020s, whose wavelength coverage is between 20 - 210$\mu$m.
The ultimate goal of SPICA is revealing the origins of planets and galaxies.
Both SPICA and TMT/MICHI can have an observation at 20$\mu$m.
They are complementary telescopes because SPICA is able to have an observation with high spectral resolution with high sensitivity, while the strong point of TMT/MICHI with MIRAO is able to have an observation with high spatial resolution.
In this poster, we present a current status of SPICA project, and discuss science cases of Galaxy properties with Super Massive Black Holes using both of SPICA and TMT/MICH.
Co-Authors: Hideo Matsuhara and SPICA team
TMT Synergies with Subaru HSC+PFS and Other Facilities
By: Masami Ouchi
MICHI: A MIR Instrument for the TMT
By: Chris Packham
Abstract: A mid-infrared (MIR) imager and spectrometer is being investigated for possible construction in the early operation of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Combined with the MIR adaptive optics (AO) system (MIRAO), the instrument will afford ~15 times higher sensitivity and ~4 times better spatial resolution (0.07”) with a greatly improved and stable Strehl ratio at 10um compared to the images delivered by the fast guiding systems of 8m-class telescopes. Through exploiting the large collecting area of the TMT, a high-dispersion spectroscopy mode unrivaled by other ground- and space-based facilities is planned. Such capabilities offer the possibility for breakthrough science, as well as ‘workhorse’ observing modes of imaging and low/moderate spectral resolution. We introduce the instrument and discuss how the instrument can help address some of the TMT’s key science cases.
Co-Authors: C. Packham (Texas, NAOJ), M. Honda (Kanagawa), Y. K. Okamoto (Ibaraki), M. Richter (Davis), M. Chun (Hawaii), H. Kataza (ISAS/JAXA), T. Onaka (Tokyo), I. Sakon (Tokyo), on behalf of the MICHI team
Scaling Relations of Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies: Similarities and Differences
By: Michael Pierce
Abstract: The various scaling relations of spiral and elliptical galaxies preserve a fossil record of their assembly history. However, despite their morphological differences, the scaling relations of spiral and elliptical galaxies also show some surprising similarities that offer clues to their formation histories. I will review this "fossil record" and the opportunity that TMT offers to trace their development since the epoch of peak assembly.
WIYN Indiana Northern Globular Cluster Survey: Identifying Multiple Stellar Populations with the CN Red System
By: Catherine Pilachowski
Abstract: Globular clusters in the Milky Way are not simple stellar populations, but rather contain the products of multiple epochs of star formation. Later generations of stars are more centrally concentrated in the clusters and are polluted with elements produced in first generation stars, showing enhanced CN band strengths. These differences suggest that multiple populations can be detected from photometric observations of the red CN system at 8100 A. The new paradigm of multiple stellar populations may provide a context to explain color gradients reported previously in a few globular clusters. The detection of color gradients in the integrated CN color of clusters may also reveal multiple populations in globular clusters in external galaxies.
Observations of gradients in CN strength in the integrated light of globular clusters in galaxies beyond the Local Group will require spatial resolution exceeding what is possible with Hubble, but possible with TMT. Such studies with TMT will help us constrain the properties of the original star forming events that produced globular clusters in different environments, and allow us to connect the clusters we observe today with the observation of high redshift cluster-forming events in the early universe observed directly with TMT.
Co-Authors: C. Pilachowski, M. Briley, S. Gillam, E. Friel, K. Rhode, E. Vesperini, C. Deliyannis, T. Steiman-Cameron
Complicated Structure of Interacting Young Binary System: Outflows and Gas-Streams
By: Tae-Soo Pyo
Abstract: It is important to understand the formation and evolution of the young binary system because many young stars are born in binary or multiple systems. We report recent discovery of binary jet and wind from UY Aur system with high-angular resolution observation by using NIFS (NIR Integral Field Spectrograph) /GEMINI combined with adaptive optics system, Altair. The primary, UY Aur A, reveals widely opened wind while the secondary, UY Aur B, shows small jets in NIR [Fe II] emission. Outflows from low-mass young binary or multiple systems have been observed from a few tens of samples. Outflows are closely related mass accretion. Many simulations show an accretion flow toward the individual circumstellar disks from the outer circumbinary disk as well as a stream bridge between the circumstellar disks. We will discuss how to use TMT and ALMA for anatomy of young binary systems.
Co-Authors: M. Hayashi, T. L. Beck, C. J. Chris, M. Takami
High-resolution, Mid-IR Spectroscopy on the Gemini North 8m
By: Matthew Richter
Abstract: The Thirty Meter Telescope will provide unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution for mid-IR, high-resolution spectroscopy. Among the ELTs, only TMT is considering an instrument for R>10,000 spectroscopy in the mid-IR. I will use current research with TEXES on the Gemini-North 8m telescope to suggest topics where TMT data will be crucial for advancing our understanding.
Accretion disks and particle emission from black holes
By: Khalid Saifullah
Abstract: Black holes are among the most interesting predictions of the general theory of relativity. The Thirty Meter Telescope will extend our ability to measure the masses of central black holes more accurately and to study the orbits of stars in the vicinity of these supermassive dark objects and warping of spacetime around them. Thus they will provide further evidence in favour of general relativity. This will help us resolve the accretion disks for these black holes also. The study of interaction of these accretion disks and the production and emission of particles from black holes is significant from the point of view of investigating the environment surrounding the dark objects hosted in the centre of many galaxies. The emission probabilities of particles including scalars and Dirac particles from black holes are calculated.
Science Application of MICHI’s IFU
By: Itsuki Sakon
Abstract: Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy is one of the unique primary functions of MICHI on the TMT. MICHI opens up, for the first time, a new window to investigate the spectral variations among ~0.1 arcsecond scale’s dusty structures in the mid-infrared. With this capability, for example, nearby Galactic (< a few kpc) stellar sources of various stellar evolutionary stages and of various main sequence masses offer unique laboratories to test the formation and chemical/mineralogical denaturing process of dust in circumstellar environments. In addition, extragalactic dusty sources such as embedded superstar clusters in blue compact dwarf galaxies, which have never been sufficiently resolved by MIR instruments onboard 8m class telescopes, will be important targets for TMT/MICHI to explore the origin of interstellar dust in the early universe. Those targets will be much more efficiently observed with the IFU spectroscopy having the FOV size of a few arcseconds by a few arcseconds rather than with the long slit spectroscopy having a few tens arcsecond’s slit length. In this presentation, I will report the latest status of our image slicer development to show its technical feasibility. I will also present some unique science cases that will be achieved by the MICHI’s IFU spectroscopy.
Co-Authors: I. Sakon (UTokyo), M. Honda (Kanagawa), Y. K. Okamoto (Ibaraki), C. Packham (Texas, NAOJ), M. Richter (Davis), M. Chun (Hawaii), H. Kataza (ISAS/JAXA), T. Onaka (Tokyo), the MICHI team
Observing the chemistry of planet formation
By: Colette Salyk
Abstract: The characteristics of planets depends sensitively on the chemical environment of their birth. There has been significant recent progress towards studying the chemistry in protoplanetary disks in the last decade, thanks to the discovery of several simple molecules (including water) in planet-forming regions. Effort is now being focused on constructing chemical "maps" that can ultimately be used to determine what types of planets might form, and where, around young stars. I will discuss the current challenges and limitations of this work, and how the thirty meter era can allow us to move past them.
TMT Overview and Project Status
By: Gary Sanders
Abstract: The Thirty Meter Telescope will be located near the summit of Mauna Kea on the big island of Hawai'i. An overview of the facility, telescope, adaptive optics systems and instruments, and fabrication and testing of prototype subsystems will be described. Formation of the international partnership and approval of the environmental and regulatory permits for construction on Mauna Kea will be described. TMT has started its construction phase on April 1, 2014 and the first elements of this new era will be described.
Tracing Evolution of Galactic Disks: Continuing the Legacy of HST / Keck with TMT, JWST and ALMA
By: Kartik Sheth
Abstract: With HST and Keck we have been able to measure the detailed assembly of L* and brighter galaxy disks to z~0.85. We have shown evidence for downsizing in the formation and evolution of structures such as stellar bars. These signposts for disk maturity have allowed us to measure the precise rate of disk assembly over the last 7Gyr. Recent analysis of DEEP2 data also indicate that bars are absent in dynamically hot disks - however, we do not have solid measurements for stellar velocity dispersion in disks at high redshift. With the TMT we will be able to make such measurements for the first time. Combined with high resolution infrared observations from JWST we will be able to measure the stellar mass distribution and structures in disks to z~3. And with ALMA we are measuring the evolution of the molecular gas fraction and dust in disk galaxies. I will discuss the synergy of these new great observatories and describe how they will allow us to extend our study of disk assembly and evolution from the present day to the epoch of disk formation at z~3. I will also discuss how these facilities will allow us to push the boundaries of such studies to lower mass (sub-L*) galaxies.
Nearby stars to distant galaxies: TMT-ALMA synergies
By: Kartik Sheth
Abstract: Although they will probe very different wavelength regimes, significant synergies will exist for TMT and ALMA due to their capabilities for high angular resolution photometric and spectroscopic imaging. We illustrate this complementarity by examining a few specific science examples ranging from exoplanets, star forming disks in our Milky Way to black hole mass measurements in nearby galaxies to high redshift galaxy assemly. Since ALMA will be a relatively mature instrument by the end of TMT construction, we focus on synergies with the TMT first-light instruments as much as possible. We will also describe the current status and capabilities of ALMA and showcase some recent science results.
Co-Authors: Christine Wilson
TMT in the Astronomical Landscape of the 2020s
By: David Silva
Polarimetric analysis of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) for modeling instrumental polarization characteristics
By: Warren Skidmore
Abstract: Because a polarimetric observing capability is an important function that the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be called upon to support, many different observing programs covering a range of different science areas are being considered for the TMT and a model of the overall polarization characteristics is being developed. The instrument development program will provide a means for polarimetric instruments to be developed, however the telescope itself and the AO system must be able to support polarimetric instruments. As a first step to defining the necessary polarimetric technical requirements we have created an international working group to carry out a study in which technical and cost implications will be balanced with scientific impact; new requirements will be generated with supporting science cases. We present here initial results of the instrumental polarization sensitivity of TMT with NFIRAOS, the first-light adaptive optics system.
Co-Authors: Jenny Atwood, Ramya Manjunath, B. Krishna Reddy, G.C. Anupama, Asoke Sen
The SKA and its pathfinders in the next decade: synergies with the TMT
By: Kristine Spekkens
Abstract: The next decade will be extremely exciting for centimeter- and meter-wave radio astronomy. Large new facilities such as ASKAP, LOFAR and MeerKAT, as well as major retrofits to existing facilities such as the JVLA and WSRT, are under construction or have begun operations. While revolutionary in and of themselves, these facilities are also important pathfinders to the SKA, whose construction will begin towards the end of this decade. This talk will review the key science that will be delivered by the SKA pathfinders as well as that anticipated with SKA Phase One (2018-2023) and Phase Two (>2023), with a focus on potential synergies with the TMT.
Across the World: A Vision for TMT Workforce Pipeline, Education, Public Outreach & Communications
By: Gordon Squires
Abstract: In this talk, I will discuss a unique plan for TMT, to develop a partner-wide, and world-wide, plan for TMT Workforce Pipeline, Education, Public Outreach & Communications.
Co-Authors: Janesse Brewer, Sandra Dawson, Steve Pompea
TMT and Space-Based Survey Missions
By: Daniel Stern
Abstract: I will discuss the synergy between TMT and space-based survey missions, particularly Euclid and WFIRST, with an eye toward ways in which these missions may affect and interact with science programs on TMT and the other giant ground-based telescopes.
TMT and Exoplanet Radial Velocity Surveys
By: Angelle Tanner
Abstract: With echelle spectrometers on the verge of crossing over the 0.1 m/s radial velocity (RV) measurement precision threshold needed to detect habitable Earth mass planets around Sun-like stars, conducing such surveys on state-of-the-art telescopes is an imperative. RV exoplanets surveys conducted with the optical and infrared echelle spectrometers being built for the TMT have the potential to complete a census of the population of Earth-mass planets in our local stellar neighborhood. The detection of such systems will provide a valuable stellar sample for follow-up exoplanet studies which would characterize the atmospheres of these or additional planets found in these nearby solar systems. Here, we will further discuss the impact of the TMT on radial velocity exoplanet surveys.
Co-Authors: Ian Crossfield
A High-Resolution Near-Infrared Perspective of the Dusty Cores in Local Galaxy Mergers
By: Vivian U
Abstract: The co-evolution of black hole and their host galaxies is one of the keys to understanding the driving force of galaxy evolution, and this hinges largely on having a proper technique with an instrument capable of probing scales equivalent to the black hole’s sphere of influence. The Keck Telescope features an adaptive optics (AO) system that allows near-diffraction-limited observations in the near-infrared (NIR) using natural and laser guide stars. Coupled with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS, this allows us to probe small-scale stellar and gas kinematics in the dusty cores of nearby (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at HST resolution or better from the ground. Here we present the results from our Keck AO NIR integral-field survey of the nuclear regions of 17 local (U)LIRGs undergoing major mergers. Our findings characterize and address the nature of nuclear disks, outflows driven by AGN and starbursts, as well as black hole-galaxy bulge scaling relations as galaxies collide and merge. These analyses pave the way for a more in-depth look at the interplay between the central black holes and their host galaxies in the TMT era.
Co-Authors: A. M. Medling, L. Armus, D. B. Sanders, C. E. Max
IRMS: Infrared Multi-Slit Spectrograph for TMT
By: Vivian U
Abstract: As one of the first-light instruments on the TMT, the IRMS is a near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph and imager designed to sample near the diffraction limit with the help of adaptive optics. Fed by the Narrow-Field Infrared Adaptive Optics Systems (NFIRAOS) on the TMT, the IRMS will provide near-infrared imaging and multi-object spectroscopy at Y, J, H, and K bands (0.9-2.5 microns) with moderate spectral resolution. With a field of view of ~2 arcmin on a side, it has a multiplex capability of up to 46 slits using a slit mask system on a cryogenic configurable slit unit. Here we present a preliminary version of the exposure time calculator for sensitivity comparison with Keck/MOSFIRE. Selected science cases are highlighted to demonstrate the need for IRMS in this upcoming thirty-meter class telescope era.
Co-Authors: B. Mobasher
Studies on high-z QSO host galaxies using high resolution deep imaging
By: Yiping Wang
Abstract: Before TMT era, it is challenging to explore host galaxy properties of optically luminous QSOs towards the peak epoch of SF/AGN activities at z~3. However, the importance of considering such a population in the current galaxy/AGN formation scenario is obvious. We will present here a preliminary study on a bright radio quiet QSO at z~3 using IRCS camera and the AO system of Subaru Telescope, as well as WFC3/F140W images. A faint galaxy which lies ~2.4" north of the QSO sightline has been resolved by the J&Ks deep imaging, and might be the absorbing galaxy giving rise to the Lyman Limit system absorption at z~2.531 seen in the QSO spectrum. Meanwhile, we vaguely revealled the host component of this high-z bright QSO. More sophisticated image processing algorithms are required, in order to confidentially measure the host properties.
Co-Authors: Wei He, Toru Yamada, Ichi Tanaka, Masanori Iye
LSST Science and Synergies With a TMT-like Facility
By: Beth Willman
TMT Solar System ISDT: Giant planet atmospheres at high spatial resolution
By: Michael H Wong
Abstract: Giant planet atmospheric research involves bright targets, so the primary advantage of TMT will be the high angular resolution made possible by its large aperture. A multi-conjugate adaptive optics experiment on the VLT in 2008 successfully demonstrated that good angular resolution could be achieved across the full Jupiter disk. This experiment ran for almost two hours, much longer than can be done on single-guidestar systems with smaller isoplanatic angles.
Spectroscopy and filtered imaging in the infrared reveal a wealth of dynamical tracers, including ices and hazes, temperatures, ammonia and methane concentrations, para hydrogen fractions, and phosphine. These quantities vary spatially, tracing the direction and magnitude of vertical transport at multiple levels in the atmosphere. At the fine spatial scales possible with AO-corrected TMT observations, these dynamical tracers will reveal the detailed circulation of vortices, storms, and jets in outer planet atmospheres.
Co-Authors: Franck Marchis, SETI Institute, Solar System ISDT member Imke de Pater, UC Berkeley
Resolved spectroscopy of adolescent and infant galaxies (1 < z < 10)
By: Shelley Wright
Abstract: The combination of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and adaptive optics (AO) on TMT will be revolutionary in studying the distant universe. The high angular resolution exploited by an AO system with this large aperture will be essential for studying high-redshift (1 < z < 5) galaxies' kinematics and chemical abundance histories. At even greater distances, TMT will be essential for conducting follow-up spectroscopy of Ly-alpha emission from first lights galaxies (6 < z < 10) and determining their kinematics and morphologies. I will present simulations and sensitivity calculations for high-z and first light galaxies using the diffraction-limited instrument IRIS coupled with NFIRAOS. I will put these simulations in context with current IFS+AO high-z observations and future capabilities with JWST.
Co-Authors: and IRIS Science team
Using TMT to characterize transiting planetary systems detected by Kepler and TESS
By: Jiwei Xie
Abstract: Many transiting planet systems have been found by Kepler and will be found by TESS in the near future. Although photometry provides valuable informations to reveal the nature of these systems, high-resolution spectrometer and adaptive optics are crucial to characterize them comprehensively. Here, we focus on two aspects: one is the research on stellar multiplicity of Kepler planetary systems, and the other is to characterize some individual Kepler systems of particular interests, e.g., systems with transit timing variations (TTVs). TMT will greatly help address some fundamental problems in these areas.
Co-Authors: J. Wang, J.-L. Zhou